Democracy in Pakistan
The appraisal of last 60 years of democracy
1. Where does Pakistan stand in terms of democracy?
2. Is the democracy an issue of Pakistan or all Muslim countries?
3. Is the democracy an issue of Pakistan or all third world countries?
4. Has the democracy with some links with the:
-Ideology of people
-Socioeconomic development of people
5. Are the people of Pakistan non democratic?
6. Is the democracy solved the issues of Pakistan?
7. the issue of democracy in Pakistan
-Personalization of politics
-Personality oriented politics
2 The system itself
-Presidential or parliamentary
-The issue of executive legislature and judiciary
3 The issue of execution
4. The tug of war between different institutions
5. Election commission and procedure of election.
6. Rigging of polls
7. The making of constitution
8. Amending the constitution
9. Horse trading
10. The politicians
-Aptitude and capabilities
11. The conduct of political parties
12. The elections in political parties
13. Manifesto of political parties
14. The role of treasury banks and opposition banks
15. The interference of military
17. The pressure groups and their attitude towards bureaucracy
18. The indigenous and foreign conspiracies (especially the superpowers)
19. baradari/claim/tribal system in Pakistan
20. Literacy rate in Pakistan
21. economic/social development in Pakistan
22. (Role of mullah/islamists)
23. Local government system and democracy
24. Participation of women in democracy
25. Will we ever be able to bring democracy?
26. Or democracy will evolve with Pakistan
-Short term measures
-Long tem measures
a) Fact or fiction?
b) Threat not only for the west but also for the Muslims?
c) Ploy of west to crush Muslims?
1. What is terrorism?
2. Is it real or so called term?
3. In modern of the world when did terrorism surface?
4. Is the terrorism a political battle or a religious battle?
5. Is the terrorism a war against the injustices of powerful, superpowers, usurpers?
6. Is the terrorism an attempt to establish the ascendancy of a particular group or class?
7. Is the terrorism a start of crusades?
-A battle between Islam and Christianity
-A battle between a section of Muslims with a section of Christians or west.
8. Is the terrorism and attempt by some hardcore Islamists groups to resist the centuries old occupation of the west on Islamic territories?
9. Do the terrorist draw their agenda of resistance from the cruelties of the west or from Islam?
10. Will they resort to terrorism even if west stops supporting Israel or India?
11. Will terrorism continue even if west stops exploiting the resources of Muslims?
12. Will the terrorism continue even if west shuns biased policies against Muslim state? Its double policy with regard to democracy, human rights violation, atomic energy etc
13. Genesis of so called terrorist or terrorist groups
14. Were this group really motivated for the cause of Islam or west was behind the creation of these groups?
15. Did these groups get separated from the agenda of world powers and pursue their own agenda separately?
16. Though the terrorist organizations have two agendas
-The destruction and defeat of America
-The establishment of Muslim or Islamic state.
17. Are all the terrorist organizations linked with each other?
18. Do they share agenda with each other?
19. To what extent they share common agenda and where they get separated.
20. Do different agencies control different terrorist groups and through different and through different ways influence terrorist groups to achieve their specific goals?
21. is the terrorism
- Local issue
- Issue of Middle East
- Issue of Pak-Afghan
- Issue of America
- A global issue
22. Has the terrorism any link with Clash of Civilization?
23. Is the terrorism linked with the faulty policies of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in the wake of Russian debacle?
24. has the terrorism any linkage with Great Game?
- Expansion of Israel
- Control of energy resources of Middle East
- Control of resources of Central Asian States
- Containment of emerging Muslim power if any.
25. Is the terrorism a ploy of western countries to crush Muslim countries especially Pakistan?
26. Why Pakistan to be crushed in the pretext of terrorism
A. Is it linked with us policies about India and china?
27. Are all sort of terrorism linked with us relation to remain a superpower for centuries
28. Is there no other way to remain in the cradle of power except in the name of terrorism?
29. War on terrorism in which context and for whom is fact and for whom and in which context is a fiction
30. Do any countries, especially the Muslims understand the reality of terrorism?
31. If they understand then are they
- Alive to respond properly
- Are they prepared or preparing for future battle or exploitation
- Have they the capacity and capability to realize and rectify the dangerous situation?
- If a Muslim country has a potential to respond
I. Which country
II. To which extent
32. Will America or western block succeed in the garb of terrorism? If yes to what extend?
33. Will Muslims ever be able to contain/ counter Americas great game?
34. In future will the Muslim governments be at loggerheads with terrorist groups or will cooperate with them at any level?
35. Can they (Muslim countries and terrorist organizations) share a common goal?
36. In the conflict what are implications
- Will the aspiring superpowers be silent?
- Will they allow America to do whatever she wants to do in the name of terrorism?
- Will they cooperate (aspiring superpowers) with Muslim forces? And to what extent?
37. Irrespective of agenda and objectives, known and unknown, what have been the implications for both Muslims and non-Muslims especially for Pakistan, Afghanistan and America.
38. Implications for America
- Credibility and neutrality of USA doubtful
- Alienation in the world of Islam
- Security threat to its populace at home and abroad
- Creation of new enemies instead of friends.
-. Even a clarion call for aspiring or emerging superpowers
-. More consciousness among Muslims for preservation of their ideology, resources and identity
- Alienation of the supporters of America in the Muslim countries
- Huge expenditure on defense
- Economic crises in USA
- Unemployment in USA
- Political challenges for the government
- Mushroom of terrorist organizations
39. Implications for Pakistan
A. economic impacts
I. More expenditure on defense
II. The stoppage of FDI
III. The destruction of tourism
IV. The destruction of infrastructure
V. Ruination of industry, agriculture in war hit areas
VI. Effect on trade
VII. Migration of people
VIII. Economic activity in the area
IX. Business of the people.
X. Expenditure on I.D.Ps
XI Expenditure on reconstruction and rehabilitation of people
XII. Stoppage of games: cricket and loss of revenue.
B. Socio-Cultural impacts
I. Health institutions
II. Educational institutions
VI. Issue of human rights
VII. Issue of women rights
VIII. Art, architecture, literature
IX. Health activities, games etc
C. Psychological impacts
III. Erosion of social relationships
IV. Mistrust in community
VIII. Nervous tension
IX. Drug abuse
XI. Emotional disorder
a) Religion of Peace
b) Islam and terrorism
c) Islam and west
d) Challenges to the world of Islam
1. Islam-its meaning and message
2. Background in which Islam dawned in Arabia and its revolutionary impact in bringing peace and prosperity in Arabian peninsula.
3. Islamic concept of peace with respect to
a. Human beings,
b. With respect to different raves,
c. Religions and
e. In peace and war time.
g. Crops and trees
4. Islamic concept of war
a. Only meant to bring peace
b War not option but compulsion
5. The age of Prophet of Islam and peace
a. Relation with
i. Arabian pagans
ii Co-clan opponents
b. The war during the reign of prophet and reasons for war
6. Expansion during the reign of caliphs
a. Why is it a objectionable in the eyes of western historians
b. Did the expansion belie the peaceful credentials of Islam
c. Were Muslim armies waging war for:
iv. Expansion of Islam
d. Were the wars offensive or defensive?
i. Was the Muslim state really threatened when the attack was launched by Muslims?
ii. Were the Persians and roman empires hurdles in the peaceful propagation of Islam?
7. Muslim dynasties and peaceful face of Islam
f. Modern Muslim states
8. Can the acts of Muslim rulers be equated with the concepts of Islam?
9. Can the acts of a Christian ruler be always equated with Christianity?
10. The historical writings of different writers especially some Muslims and generally some non-Muslims and Islamic concept of war and peace
11. Expansion of Turks into the west (Roman Empire) and image of Islam in the eyes of the west
12. Mughals incursions into the subcontinent and image of Islam in the eyes of Hindus
13. Warring factions among Muslims and the peaceful nature of Islam
14. Islamic teaching and the aspects of peaceful life
a. no love for money
b. no love for property
c. love for god
d. the day of judgment
j sanctity of three months of Islamic calendar
k the peaceful sanctuary of Kabbah
15. When the religion is so peaceful why the Muslims resorted to war even immediately after Islam and throughout later centuries
I shifting from Khilafat to Malukiyat
16. When Islam is so peaceful then why the non-Muslims blame it?
a. fearful of Islams revolutionary message
b. against the religious clergy to be powerful
c. misunderstanding between religions
d. biased propaganda
e. Islams earliest wars with Jews and Christians
g. Usmanis incursion into the west
h. Ummayads incursion into the south west
i. Opinion of western writers about Islam after the conquest of Constantinople
j. Spanish propaganda after the fall of Granada
k. Freedom movements of Muslims when west occupied Muslim lands in 19th, 20th and 21st century
l. Due to biased propaganda of Jews and Christians
m Israels creation
n Muslims reaction and biased allegation of west against Muslims
o some unscrupulous speeches of some mullahs of islam
17. A poor defense of Islam
a. no great scholar among Muslims
b. poor facility of media
c. resource issue
d. non-serious attitude of Muslims
e Muslims at loggerheads with each other
f. sectarianism and factionalism
h. low literacy rate among Muslims
i. influence of traditional mullahs
j. away from modern sciences
18. why Islam has been equated with terrorism
a. Muslim power eclipsed-west encroached upon Muslim territories
b. Muslim woke up for restoration of lost glory
c. their spirit of freedom was equated generally with terrorism
d. Israels occupation of Palestine
e. Indias occupation of Kashmir
f. USSR occupation of Afghanistan
g. USA and UK interference in Iran and Central Asia
h. First Gulf War against Iraq
i. Iraqs second occupation
j West undue support to India and Israel
k. Mujahids(freedom fighters) emerged
l. superpowers threw their agents exploited them against USSR
m. Mujahid were trained, connected throughout the world turned against America
n. a new challenge in the name of Clash of Civilizations was concocted (America started to think who can challenge west after USSR)
o. world trade center and Muslims (in Islam different sections have always been fighting for their ideology)
19. Solution for Muslims
b war or attacks
20. Americas attack on Iraq and Afghanistan
a. frustration even among peaceful Muslims
b. hard response of Mujahids to US
c this is where terrorism emerged and was equated with Islam
d. terrorist directed the attacks:
i. against USA
ii its interest
iii its allies (both Muslims and non-Muslims)
21. mujahid have two agendas
a to defeat the USA and its allies
b to establish an Islamic state
c. Irrespective of injunctions of Islam they use every possible method of resistance against USA and its allies whether it is human or not(here it is needed to understand the injunctions of Islam and the ways and means of terrorists/mujahids. The western world is at fault. They must differentiate)
to defeat America and its allies
. a. mujahid might be playing at the hands of some agency known or unknown to them
b in the garb of mujahids there might be criminals in order to save their skin, the criminals have ranked themselves with the mujahid.
c. mujahids are terrorists being the deficient in the knowledge of Islam or induced were whatever they want to do in the name of Islam. It is also creating a bad name for Islam
22. They want to establish Islamic state
a. are they really conversant in the teachings of Islam?
b do the great scholars of Islam support them?
c. do the masses support them?
d. in the present Muslim world the laws being practiced are un-Islamic?
e for establishing an Islamic state can they kill their brother Muslims and fellow human beings?
f. what kind of state they want to establish?
g will it cater to the needs of modern times?
h. are all the Muslims support the terrorist or mujahids?
I in labeling all the Muslims instead of a few mujahids what does the west want?
J does west really believe in clash of Islam and the west?
m. is the response of west in the name of freedom of thought and expression toward Muslims responsible(cartoon controversy, books)
n. can Islam not accommodate
i different thoughts
ii different systems of government
iii different races
iv different stages of belief
v different languages
vi different clans
vii different colors
o. Can the Islam not liberate the diversified world?
23. Islam, west and future of mankind
24 Islams true spirit of peace is the destiny of future mankind
Aspect: Role of media in society
1. What is media?
2. Media in old days its ways and objectives
3. Growth of media corresponding with the growth of society
4. Quantum shift of media from oral to written with the discovery of print media
5. A glimpse of different civilizations and media
6. When the tribes merged into city states; the role of media also changed
7. The media ups and downs
a. the voice of the rich and influential people
b. the voice of rulers/ kings
8. With the emergence of democracy what was the changed crept into the role of media
9. Modern world media and democracy
10. Where the democracy is suspended the role of media is changed accordingly mostly due to pressure of government (dictators)
11. Development of media renaissance, development and science
12. Societies developed, developing and underdeveloped vis-a-vis the role and development of media
13. When does media become the tool of change
14. Is the media really influential enough to bring the change in society?
15. What are the factors which make the media influential
16 which section of society does the media influence gravely
17 the ways and means which the media employ or can employ for bringing the change in society
a. different sort of programs
d. again and again coverage
i. satirical programs
k. using specific words or language
l. the role of anchorperson
18. The areas in which media can bring change
19. Media and political change
a. effecting different decisions of the government
b. favoring any one institution of the government
c. governments domestic and foreign policies
d. governments developmental projects
h favoring different sections of society over each other
I can influence treasury and opposition benches
J may influence legislation
K may influence one party or other one
L may influence canvassing and voting
M may provide food for thought for government
N may favor any system of the government
O may favor left wing or right wing parties
P may favor liberal, conservative or secular parties
20. Is the media always neutral and objective in bringing political change?
21. What are the forces which determine the policy of the media------different channels/newspapers owned by different owners with different ideologies, with different sources of funding?
22. Different agencies may also find their agents in media
23. world powers ---- media ---- domestic political change and foreign political change
24. To what extent world powers are befooled and guided by media and its global political impacts
25. Can we make the media really neutral? the portrayer of only the truth? If yes then how?
26 media and social change
a behavior of the people
b relationship among the people
c. media and health
d. consciousness about different diseases
g quality of education
h different educational movements of the world
j the situation of educational institutions
k university college school
l education in rural areas
m education in jail
n. education for special people
o. Education of women
p issues of women and media
r economic empowerment
s domestic violence
t gender biasness
u. media in the wake of natural disasters
27 moral issues and media
h. development of social values
j forbearance and tolerance
k harmony between different
Iv linguistic groups
28. to what extent media does promote social change and in which context
29. is the change natural, induced or imposed?
30. globalization/social change and role of media
31. Different groups foreign and indigenous media and social change and reaction of society
32. Religious change and media
a. discussion among different divine religions
b. through discussion among different religions development of understanding
c to lessen the friction among different religions- Islam Christianity Judaism and Hinduism
d. through religion to bring the world together in the wake of globalization
e intra-religious harmony
f. religious duties and special programs on media
j death and birth anniversaries of religious figures
k. religion modernity and media
l. blind religious beliefs and role of media
m. true picture of religion and media
n. concepts and practices
o. role of so called mullahs/Sufis
p can media be not biased in the matter of religion?
33. Cultural change and media
c different festivals
h traditional culture vis-a-vis modern culture
I culture media and synthesis
34. Media and economic change
b. business opportunity
c. fashion industry
d chemical industry
e housing industry
f food industry
35. Media and public opinion
36. To what extent media can bring the change in the life personal and social of an individual
37. Media sensational news and individual of a society
38. media- a serious thing or an entertainment or pleasure time
39. Here is the media pushing the world- towards construction or destruction
40. Are we mere changeable entities before media or thinking and responding beings in light of our own consciousness?
41. Media in 21st century
42 to what extent can we rely on media for secure peaceful and prosperous mankind
Education in Pakistan1. Awareness in public
2. No better utilization of Education (unemployment)
3. Poverty and education
4. Different concepts of education prevailing in people
5. Different system of education
English , A level, O level
Urdu, public schools
6. Difference level for different section of population and hence different utility
7. Highest opportunities for advancement (in competition) for English school students.
8. Urdu-mostly low scale jobs (Cant get their children educated from highest institutions especially English medium-hence a cycle continues.
9. Poor and middle class children (lower stature)
10. Quality of education in Urdu medium
Number of schools
Number of teachers
Quality of teachers
Mostly children have to work after schools.
Low capacity to compete
No modern technology of teaching
Teachers iron rod
Schools away children in heat or cold fall sick.
High rate of drop out
Bad company spend most of time outside the home.
People dont send their children to schools, prefer to have them engaged in work for some earning for their large families.
Fee, books, uniform shoes etc.
No supervision at home for school work.
Poor health of the students hence study is affected.
Basically trained in religious studies
No scientific knowledge
No knowledge of English language
Poor or no use and awareness of modern technology
Just trained for Namaz, Nikkah or Jinnaza
Dependent upon the source of funding
Hijacked by different donators, sponsoring machines of their ideology
Myopic views of life and world
No integration of students in normal educational system of the country
The poorest people in the Madaressah.
Jihadi culture of Madressahs
Sectarianism in Madrassah
12. English medium institutes
Not affordable for common people
For upper classes
Different techniques for teaching the students
Create competition among the students
English medium culture
Mushroom of English medium schools from last two decades
Issue of space
Charge high fee
13. Issues of Syllabi
Not tuned with time
According to the level of students
How is it design
The method, procedure and time period to revise the syllabus
Members of board who revise syllabus
14. |Medium of Instruction
a) Mother tongue
Which is best?
To which level the teaching in mother tongue is better and where we should turn towards urdu or English?
Comparison with other countries
Serious study and debate require
15. Issues of examination and evaluation
What should be the ways of evaluation
Objective or subjective questions
\Or mix of both
If mixture what should be the percentage of objective and subjective questions
The system of checking the papers
b) Special guideline and training for checking
16. Issues of science subjects
Quantity and quality of teachers
Quantity and quality of labs
Availability of fund
Availability of equipments and chemicals
Availability of electricity
Culture of experimentation
Traditional concept of people about science
17. Issues of college education
Number of colleges as per population
Number of lecturers as per students
Choice of bright students
Social sciences second grade discipline
Issues of hostel for ruler students
Issues of fee
18. Issues of university education
Politics in university
Political and religious organizations
Mashroom of universities but quality?
19. Issues of Research
Topics for research
Resources for research
Research and linkage with industry
Modern research techniques
Foreign and indigenous scholarship programme and appraisal.
20. Issues of education of women
Number of institutes for women
Behavior of parents especially in ruler areas
Womens preferred professions
Issues of coeducation
End of scope of education after marriage
Loss of Govt investment
Different Islamic groups and education of women in Pakistan
21. Policies of Government
Establishment of new universities and research institutes
Punjab educational foundation
Teachers on contract
Stipends for girls
Refreshment: milk and biscuits
Special attention towards girls education
Public private partnership
Different monitoring system
Introduction of tenure track system
22. Issues of teachers
a) Accommodation transport
No carrier security
Political interference in transfer posting
Rough behavior of teacher with students
Poor knowledge of subjects
No proper evaluation of students
Traditional methods of teaching
No refreshers courses during the service
23. Why do as a nation we not give highest value to education
24. When a religion stresses on need of education, why do we shun from education
25. Who are responsible for sorrow state of education?
26. Why poor funding for education?
27. Side by side with scientific and social sciences- is there no need for technical education
Why least attention towards Technical and Vocational education
28. Without Education can we progress
29. Where do we stand educationally with respect to the rest of the world?
30. The ways to promote education in Pakistan
31. New challenges and education
b) Political chaos
d) Global warming
32. Future of education in Pakistan
CORRUPTION OUR NATIONAL DILEMMAOutlines:
Is it really our national dilemma?
What is corruption?
How is corruption our national dilemma?
Bureaucrats, Fed. And Prov.
Military Army, Navy, Air force
Corruption and our Legislatures
Parliament, Senate, PA, NA
Corruption and Judiciary
SC, HCs, District Courts, Lawyers
Corruption and Different Departments
Police, Revenue, Health, Education, Works and services
Wapda, Taxation, Local Governments, Sports
Corruption and Provinces
Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Kpk, GB, AJK
Corruption and Political Parties
Corruption and ECP
Corruption and Media
Corruption and Religious Parties
Corruption and NGOs
Corruption and Civil Society
Is Corruption a Phenomena for Pak or has it been since inception?
Were the Military Governments or so-called Democratic Governments
Is Corruption the second nature of our society?
Are our people/communities basically corrupt or Govt. or Both
Has corruption any linkage with our social structure?
Has corruption any linkage with our degree of literacy/education?
Can there be an end to corruption in Pak?
How to get rid of this Dilemma?
Role of .
Fed. Provincial Mohtasib
How long will it take to end this Dilemma?
Corruption and our National Image
Corruption free Pakistan and Worlds Leadership
TERRORISM IN PAKSITANOutlines:
Introduction ..Thesis Statement
Terrorism in Pakistan is the product of wrong National and Foreign Policy and its roots go deep into the soil of issues of Kashmir and Afghanistan and faulty stance of our different Regimes.
What is terrorism?
Has terrorism in Pakistan any linkage with Jihad?
A particular version of Jihad our Security Strategists introduced
Was the invention of Jihad---in the interest of our country?
Its short term affects .
Its long term effects ..
Where and how Jihad and Terrorism became identical?
Did our Socio-Economic deprivation propel Jehadists in the Camp of Terrorists?
Was our National Policy with respect to defense ...
Why terrorism is always erupted in FATA?
What was the impact of Iranian Revolution on transition from Jihadism to Terrorism and Sectarianism?
What did Saudi-Arabia play role in growing the Nursery of Terrorists?
What was the impact of USSRs invasion of Afghanistan---birth of Jihadistshow were they turned toward terrorism?
Has there any link between Jihad and Terrorism
Difference between Jihad and Terrorism
Western blaming of Islam
Was our defense policy employing/exploiting the Local Jihadists for Kashmir and Afghanistan?
Why did we turn toward?
Political Leaders .weaker
Issue of Legitimacy of Military Rulers
Pressure of world powers
Was terrorism an old phenomenon for Pakistan or just appeared in the wake of 9/11?
Why did we go against our previous security plan and its impact on defense and security of Pakistan in the shape of terrorism?
How far is/was the decision of being ally of USA in the so-called war on terrorism right or wrong?
How were the Jehadists ---later on terrorists turned against Pakistans security and how did they establish and increase their circle of Influence?
Lashkar e Tayyeba
Lashkar e Jhangvi
To what extent Pakistan has ranked and executed its security plan .its success?
The damage caused by terrorists to Pakistans
How to cope with terrorism?
Terrorism in the world and Usas policy toward India, Israel and other Muslim countries..
Its fallouts on Pakistans fight against terrorism
Changing scenario at local level, regional and international level and its impacts on Pakistans war on terrorism?
In the wake of terrorism, is there need for Pakistan to make up a new security plan---keeping in view the ground realities with respect to terrorism?
What should be our short term and long term policy in combating terrorism?
Cheap and Immediate Justice
Free and Fair Democratic System
Pro-active and Effective Security Plan and Foreign Policy
Proper Tapping and Depending on our Own Resources
Can we hope for a peaceful Pakistan in the wake of existing terrorism?
Terrorism free Pakistan and World Leadership
Disaster Management and Government PreparednessOutlines:
Throughout the national history of Pakistan, disasters whether they were man-made or natural have always been least managed and have resulted in mass destruction and general poverty due to bad governance.
What is meant by the term disaster?
What is meant by Disaster Management?
What do we mean by Govt. Preparedness?
What are the types of Disaster?
Process of Disaster Management
Scientific and Effective Planning
Emergency Ration Storage
How so far our govt. has fulfilled the pre-requisites of Disaster Management?
Why our respective governments have failed to lower the intensity of disasters?
Role of Disaster Management departments
Is there need of an Impartial and Autonomous Body for Disaster Management?
Disaster management and role of
Is currently our Govt. Prepared to tackle any Disaster?
If yes .up to what extent
If not then why?
How she should get herself prepared?
How Western countries are better built after a disaster?
Proper disaster management and prosperous Pakistan
Future of Democracy in PakistanOutlines:
What is democracy?
Is Pakistan a truly democratic country?
Democracy and national history of Pakistan
Conducts of the organs of the state from inception to date
Political parties and their ..
Voters list ..Enrolment of candidates
Scrutinizing Degrees and Process
Conduct of free and fair elections
Role of Civil Society
Role of Media To preserve democracy
Personalization of Politics
Conduct of personalities
Delivery of Services
Law and order
Literacy rate...Conduct of general Masses
Role of Army
Control over Political parties
Economic and Foreign Polices
Foreign Interference an Overview
Is democracy Compatible to
Our Social Structure/Culture
Islamic Point of view
Future of democracy in Pakistan
Good Governance in Pakistan
Introduction thesis statement
Good governance throughout the history of Pakistan has been at its lowest ebb resulting in poor national progress. However with the new spirit in the independence of judiciary, the good governance will definitely improve.
What is good governance?
Good governance is simply decision making and its implementation.
A brief overview of governance in Pakistan
64 years of independence has resulted in the fulfillment self interests on the cost of national interest and ultimate crises.
Dictators and good governance?
Who governs the country?
How Western World is said a Developed World?
What are the elements of Good Governance?
1. Participatory good governance
2. Consensus oriented decisions
3. Rules and regulations
4. Effectiveness and efficiency
6. Equity and inclusiveness
Who makes decisions in Good Governance?
Who are involved and affects decision making process?
PM, Parliament, NA
Role of kitchen cabinets
Why there is lack of good governance in Pakistan?
What affects bad governance has poured on the life of country?
What is the best course to govern well?
How efficient and effective good governance can be achieved?
Good governance and prosperous Pakistan
Energy Crises in PakistanOutlines:
What is meant by energy crises?
Different governments role
A general appraisal
Sources of Energy
Whether all these sources have ever tapped, utilized, harnessed?
If yes then up to what extent?
If not then why?
Lack of political will
Lack of financial resources
How to cope with energy crises
Short term measures
Proper lining, distribution and channeling
Long term measures
Small and medium dams
New sources wind, solar, tidal
Introduction thesis statement
Gender discrimination in Pakistan is distinct at each and every level and at each for a. discrimination is embedded in our social, cultural and religious percepts.
What is GD?
GD and developed world
GD and third world
GD and Muslim world
GD and Pakistan
On what standards we measure GD?
To what extent it is prevalent in our society?
GD in different departments?
Health, education (students and employees)
GD in provinces
Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Kpk, Ajk, GB
GD in the organs of the state
GD in Law
GD and our National History
Zias Draconian Era
Mushrafs Enlighten Era
Why is GD said to be threatened by
Norms, values, customs, rites, rituals
Is there and end to GD in Pakistan?
Future of GD?
The growing menace of electricity and gas load shedding, combined with constantly rising electricity & gas tariffs has mushroomed into a grave national crisis. It has not only been affecting the trade and industry, development and construction, education and administration gravely, but has also seriously impeded the progress of the whole national life. In spite of higher authorities claims of narrowing the gap between energy demand and supply, the ground situation is showing a discouraging picture. The power short fall has crossed the 5000 figure. Unless immediate remedial masseurs are lunched on footing, Pakistan would lead to even deeper crisis.
Causes of energy short fall:
few of the basic causes of energy short fall are under
1- failure of the last regime to increase electricity: The basic cause of energy short in Pakistan is the failure of last military regime to increase the supply of electricity to keep pace with the growing demands. While the installed capacity had increased by 53 % from 1994-99 from 11,320 MW to 17,400 MW; it increase only by 12 % between 1999 to 2008, to 19420 MW
2- Under utilization of the existing generating capacity: secondly, an equally serious cause is the under utilization of the existing generating capacity. The availability of hydel electricity goes down in winter by 60 %, but unfortunately, the actual generation of electricity from thermal plants has also declined sharply, thus rising demand and supply gap to around 5000 MW.
3- Circular debts: One of the main reason in the serious short fall of thermal electricity is the problem of circular debits. In 2007, the government did not compensate the power companies for the subsidy that was being provided to the consumers. The power companies in turn could not pay the oil and gas companies, reducing their liquidity to import the furnace oil that was needed to generate electricity.
This problem has not only continued, but presently it has turned grave crises. Presently, the power companies in debt of about 100 billion rupees to the oil and gas companies. Therefore oil and gas companies provide insufficient oil and gas to the power companies that has resulted in energy short fall.
4.The repeated cutting down in Public Sector Development Program: At the present, according to Planning Commission Report, the government has conceded playing a key role in prolonging economic recession in the country by repeatedly cutting down the Public Sector development Program (PSDP) that resulted in energy and water shortage in the country. The Report states that Rs.208 billions were approved for Diamer Basha dam by the National Economic Council (NEC), the government reduced it by 100 billion rupees. The government has delayed the exploration of the Thar Coal Project, inspite of the repeated demands for funds allocation for the said project by Samar Mubarak Mand. Many other new projects regarding energy production are suffering from haltage. All these have resulted in intensifying the present energy crisis. In the country.
5 Other factors:
Some other chronic factors that contribute to the present energy crisis are as under;
(i) Line loss: very heavily line loss in the transmission and distribution because of old and poorly managed transmission system. The line loss in Pakistan is about 20 %
as compared to 8 to 10 % in other countries.
(ii) Large scale of theft of electricity: there is a large scale of that of electricity as clearly revealed by the growing difference between units generated or purchased and those paid for.
(iii) Wastage of energy by industrial sector: there is a huge wastage of energy by industry which consumes 30 % of the total electricity due to the less efficient system and other practices.
(iv) Over use of energy by transport sector: transport sector consume 28 % of the total energy. This over use of energy is due to the old and poorly tuned engines.
(v) Domestic wastage: Domestic wastage is about 45 % of the total electricity. Here too, there is a wistful and unnecessarily use of lights, air conditioners and large scale illumination on different occasions.
(vi) General wastage: excessive use of electricity in government offices, roads and park illumination have also contributed to the worsening energy crunch.
(vii) Corruption and lack of political will in the concerned energy department: have also helped the energy short fall to rise to such a disturbing heights.
(B) Effects of energy crunch:
1) Routine life: Badly affected the routine life in Pakistan 8-10 hours laodshedding in cities, 12- 18 hours in rural areas. Affected seriously the domestic life, offices, hospitals and education.
2) Industries: Many industrial units have closed and many shifted their installation to Bangladesh. This poor industrial production has ultimately affected the GDP of Pakistan. Downsizing of the workers in industries. Many workers turned jobless. The buying capacity of people has reduced sharply.
→ Rise in the price of commodities.
3) Market: Markets are closed early due to the load shedding. Secondly production cost of commodities have raised.
4) Agriculture: the agricultural land that is dependent on tube well and dug wells, its yielding capacity has sharply reduced due to load shedding. As crops do not get water in time.
5) Strikes and agitation: Due to load shedding many strikes have occurred across the country, destroyed government installations.
6) Low National growth: load shedding has affected the national growth badly. Less progress or no progress at all in all walks of the country. Ultimately, less GDP growth rate.
Three kinds of measures should be taken;
1) immediate measures: Firstly, the problem of circular debt should be solved on proiority basis, in order to enable the power companies to clear their debts. Secondly, the agreement of importing electricity from Iron and Tajikistan needs to be implemented in a quick fashion. The Pak- Iron gas pipe line project needs to be completed on the earliest dates.
2) Mid term plan: First, all the gas and inefficient WAPDA plants should be replaced by more efficient and combined cycle plants. Second, there is an urgent need of modernizing the overloaded transmission and distribution system. The expenditure of updating our electricity system could be recovered in only three years through savings from the line loss.
3) Long term plans:
(i) Dams construction:
the longer term solution of energy crisis will be to restore the hydro thermal mix to 60:40 or at least 50:50 in the coming five years. According to world report Pak can create above 50000 MW through water. The previous wapda chief said that Pak could produce 100000 MW from water. There is a need of building kalabagh dam of 4500 MW capacity, Basha dam 4200 MW, Neelum Jehlum 996 MW, extension of Tarbella dam 960 MW, Suki Kinari 840 MW, Munda 700 MW etc. Need of foreign investment for this institution like World Bank, A. B. bank etc. are needed to be attracted to invest in this project.
(ii) Gas exploration:
Licenses should be issued to foreign and local exploration companies. As there is a high untapped gas capacity in Pak. On 18th of June a wale near Mianwali, Punjab started gas. It is considered to be the large wale in the subcontinent. There new wale in Karak, one in Sindh and one in Sui discovered. Such more Wales are needed to be explored to meet out the energy needs of the country.
Pak has the second largest coal deposits in the world i.e. 185 billion metric tons, most of it is in Thar, Sindh. The initiative being taken by government to facilitate Dr. summer Mubarak Mands step of gasification and then turning this coal into electrical energy, must be implemented on larger scale, once his first experiment is succeeded. we can produce 50 thousands MW electricity from Thar coal for the coming 200 years. (Sammer Mubarak Mand)
vi) Wind energy:
Pakistan is blessed with a 1000 kilometer long coast and touring mountains of Himalayas, which provide excellent source for wind energy. The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) needs to plant wind turbines in these areas. More projects on the model of Wind Mill, Jhimpir, Sindh, that produces 50 MW electricity, are required to be planted in Pakistan.
v) Solar Energy:
Pakistan gets abundance of sunshine throughout the year. Around 1800 KW/h per square meter can be produced annually through sunshine.
iv) Peace and Security in the Country:
Peace and security is necessary for implementing all the plans about the generation of power resources in Pakistan.
God has blessed Pakistan with variety of energy resources and those also in abundance. There is a need of proper planning and political will to take out these. It is high time to formulate such polices that could bridge the gap between the demand and supply of energy in the country. Once a proper policy is formulated and steps were taken with nationalistic zeal, than we would not only have enough energy to be utilized domestically but we would be among its exporter.
When there is a rule of law and the writ of the state prevails everywhere. When the government establishes peace and brings developmental projects for the betterment of its people and makes the state strong, When such a government prepares people-centric policies and then implements them with full honesty and zeal, When the government transforms the state into a welfare state. We call such a rule as "Good Governance" .But unfortunately, the situation in Pakistan is totally opposite.
The failure to introduce transparency in the country, Pakistan's government and civil services are undermining governance and providing opportunities for the military to subvert the democratic transition as well as to the extremists to destabilize the state. Pakistan's major crisis, presently, is that of a poor governance which has spawned many of the ills that plagued the country; insecurity, growing poverty, widening class divide, corruption and paralysis of the administration.
Military intervened on its self-assured role of savior on several occasions, but it has not only failed to rectify the problem, rather confounded them.
Militants pose a bigger challenge than military, since they do not operate in a structured environment. They do not offer a solution but appeal to the religiosity of the people who are the victims of the poor governance, corruption, inaptitude of the civil servants, of the politicians and all the other branches and unfavorable steps of the government
Measures Necessary for Establishment of Good Governance:-
1. Increase in the salaries of Civil servants.
2. Long lasting economic policies.
3. Check by media.
4. Empowering local government.
5. Reducing the discretionary powers of Civil servants and making them answerable for each of their steps.
6. True democracy: allowing all the three tiers of government to work in their jurisdictions and also allowing the provincial governments to work in their allotted spheres
Causes of bad Governance:-
Following are the causes of bad governance:-
1. Weak political system and it's dependency on the bureaucracy for it's survival: Every time we have a coalition government in Pakistan, which is normally a weak government. Small political parties oftenly try to topple down such a government. Such a government turns towards bureaucracy for it's continuation.
2. Lack of Transparency: Corruption has entered into all facets of national life.
Every year in Pakistan more than 500 billion rupees lapse in civil Bureaucracy". (Qaiser Bangali)
3. Lack of Accountability: There is no inter-departmental and intra-departmental audit in a free sense.
4. Wide and discretionary powers of the e Civil servants.
5. Imbalance in the tricotmy; the three tiers of the government.
6. Politics of obstruction and opportunism.
7. No true national level party that represents the whole federation.
Effects of Bad Governance:-
1. Disintegration of the state
2. Wide spread corruption
3. Sectarianism / Terrorism
4. Military inventions
5. Worsening Law and Order situations
6. Economic meltdown
Measures/ Remedies to Prevent Bad Governance:-
1. To make civil servants a non-partisan as it was designed to be. It should kept away from doing politics.
2. True Accountability from top to bottom. Strong judiciary, for minimizing corruption in the country.
3. Transparency in every department, every project.
"The process of achieving national cohesion and a feeling of being united as a nation".
The society in the state of Pakistan has been caught in the whirlpool of divergent and cross-cutting socio-econmic fibres. In 1971, half of the country physically fell off. The rest is being eroded by ethnic strife, political division, provincial hatred, economic depravation, political insanity, rich and poor gap. This situation has dashed the ideals of Quaid-e-Azam to the ground. All these crisis jeopardize the integration of the state and threaten the federal structure itself. In the words of Stephen Cohen;
Pakistan is a sate like S.S Titanic leading towards a giant ice-burg unless, it changes its course, soon its fate would be sealed."
Even before independence, the divisive forces worked against the very concept of Pakistan. Finally, once it emerged on the map of the world as a reality, the process of national integration, so vital to fight against the divisive forces, could not go unhampered. The ethnic divide, economic disparity and political intrigues and injustices resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.
Causes of Disintegration:-
1. Strong Feudal Culture: the continuation of the colonial legacy.
2. Ethnocentrism: the linguistic division like Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Pashtun and Baluchi etc.
3. Inequitable Distribution of Wealth: Provincial and regional divisions. For example,
i:Concerns of the small provinces against Punjab.
ii: Saraiki concerns against Punjabi and Hindko speakers against Pashtoons.
iii: Royalty issues like Baluchistan demands for the royalty of gas in it's province. KPK deamnds for the ownership of Tarbela, Warsak dam etc.
4. Sectarianism, Afghan War, Religious extremism, Terrorism etc.
5. Apartheid education
6. Poor management of resources.
7. Politics of regionalism/ Provincialism
8. Over centralization: centre, powerful while provincial government is weak.
9. Indian involvement in Baluchistan and FATA.
1. Federation in Letter and In Spirit: Bringing provincial autonomy: The 18th amendment to the constitution of Pakistan is a step towards provincial autonomy, as 19 ministries would go to the provinces.
2. Equitable Distribution of Economic Resources: Preference must be given to the uplift of the backward areas, provinces. The settlement of the NFC issue would greatly help national cohesion.
3. Royalty of Resources must be given to the provinces: This would boost up confidence in the ignored provinces. To a great extent, this issue has been settled down by the amicable solution of NFC. But it must be ensured that these resources are not only used by the respective provinces but are also utilized for the larger interest of the country.
4. Good Governance: Transparent, accountable, democratic, progressive, National in character.
5. Disbanding Feudalism.
6. Comprehensive and nationalistic education policy and its implementation.
7. Role of Religion.
8. Role of Media.
9. Appropriate measures must be taken to bring the dissatisfied Baluch leaders and the trouble by giving miscreants in FATA, under the national umbrella. Foreign involvement must be countered.
In the wake of changing world politics, where inner fronts are measured susceptible than the outer. An integrated nation is must to guard against all external and internal challenges to the solidarity and security of Pakistan. We have contributed a great deal to the sorry state of affairs. Pakistan, indeed, is endowed with plenty of human and natural resources to be a viable nation and state. There is a need to determine the national identity through an objective analysis of all the facets of the problems of national integration, without any regard to our social, cultural, ethnic or religious obsessions and prejudices.
Gender DiscriminationWhy is it still so bad and what can you do about it?
o Girls: Household Servants
o Geatest Obstacles Affecting Girls
o Infanticide and Sex-Selective Abortion
o Sex Trafficking
o Breaking The Pattern
o How To Help
"When you grow up, you can be whatever you want to be." Little girls in the United States
hear this all the time, from their mothers to teachers to "Sesame Street" characters. Almost everywhere they go, they are encouraged to believe that girls can be just as smart, athletic, and successful as boys. Even the pictures of spunky women on magazine covers at the checkout stand tell them that
when you're a girl, anything is possible.
But for little girls in developing countries, the message is just the opposite.
From the day they are born, they are constantly reminded of the things they are not allowed to do.
Girls: Household Servants
When a boy is born in most developing countries, friends and relatives exclaim congratulations. A son means insurance. He will inherit his father's property and get a job to help support the family. When a girl is born, the reaction is very different. Some women weep when they find out their baby is a girl because, to them, a daughter is just another expense. Her place is in the home, not in the world of men. In some parts of India, it's traditional to greet a family with a newborn girl by saying, "The servant of your household has been born."
A girl can't help but feel inferior when everything around her tells her that she is worth less than a boy. Her identity is forged as soon as her family and society limit her opportunities and declare her to be second-rate.
A combination of extreme poverty and deep biases against women creates a remorseless cycle of discrimination that keeps girls in developing countries from living up to their full potential. It also leaves them vulnerable to severe physical and emotional abuse. These "servants of the household" come to accept that life will never be any different.
Greatest Obstacles Affecting Girls
Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Studies show there is a direct link between a country's attitude toward women and its progress socially and economically. The status of women is central to the health of a society. If one part suffers, so does the whole.
Tragically, female children are most defenseless against the trauma of gender discrimination. The following obstacles are stark examples of what girls worldwide face. But the good news is that new generations of girls represent the most promising source of change for womenand menin the developing world today.
In developing countries, the birth of a girl causes great upheaval for poor families. When there is barely enough food to survive, any child puts a strain on a family's resources. But the monetary drain of a daughter feels even more severe, especially in regions where dowry is practiced.
Dowry is goods and money a bride's family pays to the husband's family. Originally intended to help with marriage expenses, dowry came to be seen as payment to the groom's family for taking on the burden of another woman. In some countries, dowries are extravagant, costing years' worth of wages, and often throwing a woman's family into debt. The dowry practice makes the prospect of having a girl even more distasteful to poor families. It also puts young women in danger: A new bride is at the mercy of her in-laws should they decide her dowry is too small. UNICEF estimates that around 5,000 Indian women are killed in dowry-related incidents each year.
The developing world is full of poverty-stricken families who see their daughters as an economic predicament. That attitude has resulted in the widespread neglect of baby girls in Africa, Asia, and South America. In many communities, it's a regular practice to breastfeed girls for a shorter time than boys so that women can try to get pregnant again with a boy as soon as possible. As a result, girls miss out on life-giving nutrition during a crucial window of their development, which stunts their growth and weakens their resistance to disease.
Statistics show that the neglect continues as they grow up. Young girls receive less food, healthcare and fewer vaccinations overall than boys. Not much changes as they become women. Tradition calls for women to eat last, often reduced to picking over the leftovers from the men and boys.
Infanticide and Sex-Selective Abortion
In extreme cases, parents make the horrific choice to end their baby girl's life. One woman named Lakshmi from Tamil Nadu, an impoverished region of India, fed her baby sap from an oleander bush mixed with castor oil until the girl bled from the nose and died. "A daughter is always liabilities. How can I bring up a second?" said Lakshmi to explain why she chose to end her baby's life. "Instead of her suffering the way I do, I thought it was better to get rid of her."
Sex-selective abortions are even more common than infanticides in India. They are growing ever more frequent as technology makes it simple and cheap to determine a fetus' gender. In Jaipur, a Western Indian city of 2 million people, 3,500 sex-determined abortions are carried out every year. The gender ratio across India has dropped to an unnatural low of 927 females to 1,000 males due to infanticide and sex-based abortions.
China has its own long legacy of female infanticide. In the last two decades, the government's infamous one-child policy has weakened the country's track record even more. By restricting household size to limit the population, the policy gives parents just one chance to produce a coveted son before being forced to pay heavy fines for additional children. In 1997, the World Health Organization declared, " more than 50 million women were estimated to be 'missing' in China because of the institutionalized killing and neglect of girls due to Beijing's population control program." The Chinese government says that sex-selective abortion is one major explanation for the staggering number of Chinese girls who have simply vanished from the population in the last 20 years.
Even after infancy, the threat of physical harm follows girls throughout their lives. Women in every society are vulnerable to abuse. But the threat is more severe for girls and women who live in societies where women's rights mean practically nothing. Mothers who lack their own rights have little protection to offer their daughters, much less themselves, from male relatives and other authority figures. The frequency of rape and violent attacks against women in the developing world is alarming. Forty-five percent of Ethiopian women say that they have been assaulted in their lifetimes. In 1998, 48 percent of Palestinian women admitted to being abused by an intimate partner within the past year.
In some cultures, the physical and psychological trauma of rape is compounded by an additional stigma. In cultures that maintain strict sexual codes for women, if a woman steps out of boundsby choosing her own husband, flirting in public, or seeking divorce from an abusive partnershe has brought dishonor to her family and must be disciplined. Often, discipline means execution. Families commit "honor killings" to salvage their reputation tainted by disobedient women.
Appallingly, this "disobedience" includes rape. In 1999, a 16-year-old mentally handicapped girl in Pakistan who had been raped was brought before her tribe's judicial counsel. Although she was the victim and her attacker had been arrested, the counsel decided she had brought shame to the tribe and ordered her public execution. This case, which received a lot of publicity at the time, is not unusual. Three women fall victim to honor killings in Pakistan every dayincluding victims of rape. In areas of Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe, all responsibility for sexual misconduct falls, by default, to women.
For the young girls who escape these pitfalls and grow up relatively safely, daily life is still incredibly hard. School might be an option for a few years, but most girls are pulled out at age 9 or 10 when they're useful enough to work all day at home. Nine million more girls than boys miss out on school every year, according to UNICEF. While their brothers continue to go to classes or pursue their hobbies and play, they join the women to do the bulk of the housework.
Housework in developing countries consists of continuous, difficult physical labor. A girl is likely to work from before daybreak until the light drains away. She walks barefoot long distances several times a day carrying heavy buckets of water, most likely polluted, just to keep her family alive. She cleans, grinds corn, gathers fuel, tends to the fields, bathes her younger siblings, and prepares meals until she sits down to her own after all the men in the family have eaten. Most families can't afford modern appliances, so her tasks must be done by handcrushing corn into meal with heavy rocks, scrubbing laundry against rough stones, kneading bread and cooking gruel over a blistering open fire. There is no time left in the day to learn to read and write or to play with friends. She collapses exhausted each night, ready to wake up the next morning to start another long workday.
Most of this labor is performed without recognition or reward. UN statistics show that although women produce half the world's food, they own only 1 percent of its farmland. In most African and Asian countries, women's work isn't even considered real labor. Should a woman take a job, she is expected to keep up all her responsibilities at home in addition to her new ones, with no extra help. Women's labor goes overlooked, even though it is crucial to the survival of each family.
Some families decide it's more lucrative to send their daughters to a nearby town or city to get jobs that usually involve hard labor and little pay. That desperate need for income leaves girls easy prey to sex traffickers, particularly in Southeast Asia, where international tourism gorges the illegal industry. In Thailand, the sex trade has swelled without check into a main sector of the national economy. Families in small villages along the Chinese border are regularly approached by recruiters called "aunties" who ask for their daughters in exchange for six years' wages. Most Thai farmers earn only $150 a year. The offer can be too tempting to refuse.
The girls who are forced into prostitution to support their families often feel their burden deeply. "When I was at work, 50 percent of me hated what I was doing," said one 14-year-old girl, who felt conflicted about being taken out of a brothel in Chiang Mai, Thailand. "But the other 50 percent wanted to stay so that I could earn money for my parents. My father cannot work. He is very old and I must support the family. It is my job."
It's estimated that 1 million children around the world are involved in the sex trade; a third of all sex workers in Southeast Asia are between the ages of 12 and 17.
Girls' Education: Breaking the Pattern of Gender Discrimination
Education is the tool that can help break the pattern of gender discrimination and bring lasting change for women in developing countries.
Educated women are essential to ending gender bias, starting by reducing the poverty that makes discrimination even worse in the developing world. The most basic skills in literacy and arithmetic open up opportunities for better-paying jobs for women. Uneducated women in rural areas of Zambia, for instance, are twice as likely to live in poverty as those who have had eight or more years of education. The longer a girl is able to stay in school, the greater her chances to pursue worthwhile employment, higher education, and a life without the hazards of extreme poverty.
Women who have had some schooling are more likely to get married later, survive childbirth, have fewer and healthier children, and make sure their own children complete school. They also understand hygiene and nutrition better and are more likely to prevent disease by visiting health care facilities. The UN estimates that for every year a woman spends in primary school, the risk of her child dying prematurely is reduced by 8 percent.
Girls' education also means comprehensive change for a society. As women get the opportunity to go to school and obtain higher-level jobs, they gain status in their communities. Status translates into the power to influence their families and societies.
Even bigger changes become possible as girls' education becomes the cultural norm. Women can't defend themselves against physical and sexual abuse until they have the authority to speak against it without fear. Knowledge gives that authority. Women who have been educated are half as likely to undergo harmful cultural practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and four times as likely to protect their daughters from it. The Global Campaign for Education also states that a primary education defends women against HIV/AIDS infectiondisproportionately high for women in developing countriesby giving "the most marginalized groups in societynotably young womenthe status and confidence needed to act on information and refuse unsafe sex."
FGM and HIV/AIDS are too large to adequately address in this article, but they represent desperate challenges to the basic health and well-being of women in developing countries.
How to Help
You can help pull down the barriers that keep girls from attending school and begin to bring change for women in developing countries. The most direct way is by easing the financial need that forces families to take their children out of school in the first place.
Dozens of international organizations are working to improve the livelihood of impoverished people. By building infrastructure and providing aid, vocational training, and education programs, they give families in developing countries resources to create healthy and stable lives. That takes the burden of mere survival off young women and gives them the time to get an education. With practical help and encouragement, girls are more likely to enroll and stay in school.
UNICEF is encouraging all international organizations to come up with strategies for girls' education as part of their initial development plans. It has also started a movement to monitor school materials, facilities, and teachers to ensure that girls get a quality education that promotes appropriate perceptions of women, and that female students are given the same privileges as male students. All UNICEF and other reputable organizations need now are the resources to fund their efforts.
You can help begin to change the lives of women around the world by making a financial gift or raising awareness about girls in the developing world today. Children In Need offers internships and volunteer opportunities to people who want to help raise awareness of the issues tha impact children. You can support Amnesty International, UNICEF, UNIFEM and INSTRAW. Or find another organization youd like to support through Interaction. The need is clear, and though the obstacles to ending gender discrimination are high, they are not insurmountable.
Challenges, Issues and Solutions
Concept of Ummah
What is Muslim Ummah
The Future_ ?????
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
Far behind in Science and Technology
No Veto Powers
Concentration of wealth
Redefining the role of women
Causes of debacle
Problems in implementation
Ummah (Arabic: أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community" or "nation". It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or the whole Arab world.
In the context of Islam, the word Ummah is used to mean the diaspora or Commonwealth of the Believers (ummat al-mu'minin), and thus the whole Muslim world.
Concepts of Allama Iqbal, Jamal-ud-Din Afghani and Shah Wali Ullah
Allama Iqbal, Syed Jamal-ud-Din Afghani and Shah Wali Ullah have their own concept of Muslim Ummah.
Allama Iqbal: All the Muslims beyond any difference of color, caste, nation, state, ideology at the basis of religion are called Muslim Ummah.
Syed Jamal-ud-din Afghani: All the Muslim states constitute Ummah. He was preacher of Pa Islamism.
Shah Wali Ullah: Muslims belonging to Muslim states only constitute Muslim Ummah.
In the light of all above definitions we conclude that Muslims present in any part of the world are part of Muslim Ummah.
The Past- Glorious
Period of Nabuwat
Period of Khilafat
In the period of second Caliph Hazrat Umer Farooq (R.A) Iran, Iraq, Palestine and Egypt were conquered.
In the period of third Caliph Hazrat Usman (R.A) Afghanistan, Qabris, Tunis and Moroc were conquered.
Hazrat Ali (R.A) in his period took part in Jang-e-Nehrwan with Kharji, Jang-e-Jaml with Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) and Jang-e-Safeen with Hazrat Ameer Muawia.
During the period of Hazrat Ameer Muawia Muslims got military strength. After Ameer Muawia long chain of government is being followed.
Muawia---Yazid---Muawia II---Merwan---Abdul Malik---Waleed Bin Malik
In the period of Waleed Bin Malik great victories came in part of Muslims.
Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh
Qateebah Bin Muslim Conquered Turkistan
Tariq Bin Ziyad conquered Spain, Portugal
Musa Bin Naseer conquered Undlus, Africa
After this Islam emerged as power and penetrated in whole world quickly.
A good leader must follow the sequence of victories, annexation and then administration or practical establishment of government. By adopting this way one can strengthen its control over empires.
Period of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz
Hasham Bin Malik ruled over Central Asia, Roam
Periodof Khilafat-e-Bnu Abbas
Haroon-ur-Rasheed laid stress on education and he developed schools and colleges to spread education. Muslims got strength in education in his period.
Bring the period 300-400AH Khilafat was divided.
Banu Idrees Africa
From 400-500 AH Shia-Suni split happened.
500-600 Crusades (Noor-ud-Din Zangi and Salah-u-Din Ayubi)
600-700 was a period of Tatars attacks and falloff Baghdad
First Qibla captured by Crusaders
700-800 Ameer Taimoor-Mahood Garan accepted Islam. And havoc was turned
800-900 height of Ottoman Empire
Rule of Banu Abbass ended in 923 AH
900-1000 Saleem Usmani, Ottoman Empire
1000-1100 period of fall
1100-1200 wars with Russia, Astria, Attack of Abdall on India
1200-1300 egypt Vs Ottomans, rebellion in Bosnia, Napoleons attacks, Wahabiz at Hijaz
1300-1400 fall of Khilafat
Achievements in Past:
Muslims enjoyed victories
They had strong military
They were at peak in education, justice and culture
They had strong economy and Jihad was basic tool of strong economy.
56-57 total Muslim states
Democracy: Most OIC countries are non democratic. There are no OIC countries which are rated as full democracy under the democracy index guidelines; only 3 out of 57 countries are rated as high as a flawed democracy. The rest are rated either Authoritarian Regime or a hybrid Regime.
Freedom: Only 3 OIC member states were rated as free in the freedom in the world reposrt in 2010 based on political rights and civil liberties in member countries.
Reporters without borders in its 2011 Press Freedom Index rated only Mali and Suriname among the OIC members as having satisfactory situation. All other members had worse rating ranging from noticeable problems to very serious situation.
Freedom of religion is most severely restricted in most OIC member states. In US Department of state cited OIC members Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Uzbekistan as being countries of particular concern where religious freedom is severely violated.
Future of Muslim Ummah is bright if they come under one roof and united struggle is required for the restoration of glorious past. It is evident from history of Muslim Ummah that they have enjoyed a prestigious place in different fields. This movement towards growth can be accelerated by the contribution of OIC.
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
Far behind in Science and Technology
No Veto Powers
Concentration of wealth
Redefining the role of women
Causes of Debacles:
Internal and international conspiracies
Regionalism (Arab, Non Arab or Arab, African)
Illiteracy, poverty and conservatism
Leaving Jihad and spirituality
Acting off beam philosophies including deen-eIlahi, Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Mootazilla
India is the largest democracy in the world. Ruled by various kings and emperors and colonised by the Europeans for centuries, India became a democratic nation post its independence in the year 1947. Thereafter, the citizens of India were given the right to vote and elect their leaders.
The second most populous country and the seventh largest country by area, India is the largest democracy in the world. Indian democratic government was formed after the nation attained independence in 1947. The parliamentary and state assembly elections are held every 5 years to elect the Central and state governments. Here are essays of varying lengths on Democracy in India to help you with the topic in your exams.
Essay on Democracy in India
Democracy in India Essay 1 (200 words)
Democracy is a system of government that allows the citizens to cast vote and elect a government of their choice. India became a democratic state after its independence from the British rule in 1947. It is the largest democratic nation in the world.
Democracy in India gives its citizens the right to vote irrespective of their caste, colour, creed, religion and gender. It has five democratic principles – sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic and republic.
Various political parties stand for elections at the state as well as national level periodically. They propagate about the tasks accomplished in their previous tenure and also share their future plans with the people. Every citizen of India, above the age of 18 years, has the right to vote. The government is making continuous efforts to encourage more and more people to cast their vote. People must know everything about the candidates standing for the elections and vote for the most deserving one for good governance.
India is known to have a successful democratic system. However, there are certain loopholes that need to be worked on. Among other things, the government must work on eliminating poverty, illiteracy, communalism, gender discrimination and casteism in order to ensure democracy in true sense.
Democracy in India Essay 2 (300 words)
Democracy is said to be the best form of government. It allows every citizen of the country to cast vote and choose their leaders irrespective of their caste, colour, creed, religion or gender. The government is elected by the common people of the country and it won’t be wrong to say that it is their wisdom and awareness that determines the success or failure of the government.
Many countries have a democratic system. However, India is the largest democracy in the world. It runs on five democratic principles including sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic and republic. India was declared a democratic nation after it attained freedom from the colonial rule of the British in 1947. Not only the largest, Indian democracy is also known to be one of the most successful ones.
India has a federal form of democracy with a government at the centre that is responsible to the parliament and state governments that are equally accountable for their legislative assemblies. Elections are held at regular intervals in the county and several parties compete to get to the centre and also to make their place in the states. People are encouraged to exercise their right to vote to elect the most deserving candidate, though caste is also a big factor in Indian politics.
Campaigns are carried out by different political parties to emphasize on the work they have done for the development of people as well on their future agenda to benefit people.
Democracy in India does not only means providing the right to vote but also ensuring social and economic equality. While the democratic system of the country has received worldwide appreciation there are many areas that require improvement so that democracy can be formed in true sense. The government must work upon eradicating illiteracy, poverty, communalism, casteism and gender discrimination among other things.
Democracy in India Essay 3 (400 words)
Democracy is government by the people, for the people and of the people. The citizens in a democratic nation enjoy the right to vote and elect their government.
India is the largest democracy in the world. After being ruled by the Mughals, Mauryas, British and various other rulers for centuries, India finally became a democratic state after its independence in 1947. The people of the country, who had suffered at the hands of foreign powers, finally got the right to choose their own ministers by casting vote. Democracy in India is not limited to just providing the right to vote to its citizens, it is also working towards social and economic equality.
Democracy in India works on five democratic principles. These are:
- Sovereign: This means free from the interference or control of any foreign power.
- Socialist: This means providing social and economic equality to all the citizens.
- Secular: This means freedom to practice any religion or reject all.
- Democratic: This means the government of India is elected by its citizens.
- Republic: This means the head of the country is not a hereditary king or queen.
Working of Democracy in India
Every Indian citizen, above 18 years of age, can exercise the right to vote in India. There is no discrimination based on a person’s caste, creed, religion, gender or education when it comes to providing the right to vote.
Candidates from several national and regional parties including Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI -M), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) fight for the elections. Candidates evaluate their work during the last tenure of these parties or their representatives and also the promises made by them in order to decide whom to vote.
Scope for Improvement
There is a lot of scope of improvement in the Indian democracy. Steps must be taken to:
- Eradicate poverty
- Promote literacy
- Encourage people to vote
- Educate people on choosing the right candidate
- Encourage intelligent and educated people to take up leadership roles
- Eradicate communalism
- Ensure impartial and responsible media
- Monitor the working of the elected members
- Form responsible opposition
Though democracy in India has been appreciated worldwide for its working there is still a lot of scope for improvement. The aforementioned steps must be taken to ensure smooth functioning of democracy in the country.
Democracy in India Essay 4 (500 words)
A democratic nation is one where the citizens have the right to elect their government. It is sometimes also said to be the “rule of the majority”. Several countries around the world run democratic government but India takes pride in being the largest democracy.
History of Democracy in India
India had been ruled by several rulers from Mughals to Mauryas. Each of them had their own style of governing the people. It was only after the country got independence from the colonial rule of the Britishers in 1947 that it became a democratic nation. It was then that the people of India, who had suffered tyranny at the hands of the British, attained the right to vote and elect their government for the first time.
Democratic Principles of India
Sovereign refers to an entity that is free from the control of any foreign power. The citizens of India enjoy sovereign power to elect their ministers.
Socialist means providing social and economic equality to all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, colour, creed, gender and religion.
Secular means the freedom to practice the religion of one’s choice. There is no official state religion in the country.
This means the government of India is elected by its citizens. The right to vote is given to all the Indian citizens without any discrimination.
The head of the country is not a hereditary king or queen. He is elected by an electoral college.
The Working of Democracy in India
Every citizen of India, above the age of 18 years, has the right to vote. The Constitution does not discriminate anyone on the basis of their caste, colour, creed, gender, religion or education.
There are seven national parties in the country namely, Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI-M), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Besides these, there are a number of regional parties that fight the elections to state legislatures. Elections are held periodically and people exercise their right to vote to elect their representatives. The government is continually making efforts to encourage more and more people to use their right to vote to choose good governance.
Democracy in India is not merely about giving people the right to vote but ensuring equality in all the spheres of life.
Hindrances in the Working of Democracy in India
While the elections have been happening at the right time and a systematic approach is followed to conduct the same ever since the concept of democracy came into being in India there are many hindrances in the smooth functioning of democracy in the country. These include illiteracy, gender discrimination, poverty, cultural disparity, political influence, casteism and communalism. All these factors adversely affect democracy in India.
While democracy in India has been appreciated worldwide, there are still miles to go. Factors such as illiteracy, poverty, gender discrimination and communalism that impact the working of democracy in India need to be eradicated in order to allow the citizens to enjoy democracy in true sense.
Democracy in India Essay 5 (600 words)
Democracy in India was formed after the nation was freed from the clutches of the British rule in 1947. It led to the birth of the world’s largest democracy. Under the effective leadership of the Indian National Congress, the people of India attained the right to vote and elect their government.
There are a total of seven national parties in the country – Indian National Congress (INC), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI-M), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Apart from these, many regional parties come forward for elections to state legislatures. Elections to the parliament and state assemblies are held every 5 years.
Democratic Principles of India
Here are the Democratic Principles of India:
Sovereign means independent – free from interference or control of any foreign power. The country has a government directly elected by the citizens of the country. Indian citizens have the sovereign power to elect their leaders by elections conducted for the parliament, local bodies as well as the state legislature.
Socialist means social as well as economic equality for all the citizens of the country. Democratic socialism means attaining socialistic goals by way of evolutionary, democratic and non-violent means. The government is making continual efforts to lessen the economic inequality by decreasing the concentration of wealth.
This means the right and freedom to choose one’s religion. In India, one has the right to practise any religion or reject them all. The Government of India respects all the religions and does not have any official state religion. It does not disgrace or promote any religion.
This means the government of the country is elected democratically by its citizens. The people of the country have the right to elect its government at all the levels (Union, State and local) by way of universal adult franchise also known as ‘one man one vote’. The right to vote is given without any discrimination on the basis of the colour, caste, creed, religion, gender or education. Not just political, the people of India also enjoy social and economic democracy.
The head of the state here is not a heredity king or queen but an elected person. The ceremonial head of the state, that is, the President of India is elected by an electoral college for a period of five years, while executive powers are vested in the Prime Minister.
Challenges Faced by Indian Democracy
While the constitution promises a democratic state and the people of India have been entitled to all the rights a person should enjoy in a democratic state, there are a lot of factors that impact its democracy and pose a challenge to it. Here is a look at these factors:
Illiteracy among people is one of the biggest challenges the Indian democracy has faced ever since its inception. Education enables the people to exercise their right to vote wisely.
People belonging to the poor and backward classes are usually manipulated by the political parties. They are often bribed to acquire their vote.
Apart from these, casteism, gender discrimination, communalism, religious fundamentalism, political violence and corruption are among other factors that are a challenge for democracy in India.
Democracy in India has received appreciation from world over. The right to vote to every citizen of the country has been given without any discrimination on the basis of their caste, colour, creed, religion, gender or education. However, the huge cultural, religious and linguistic diversity in the country is a major challenge for its democracy. The differences sought to be created out of it, are a cause of serious concern. There is a need to curb these divisive tendencies in order to ensure the smooth functioning of democracy in India.