In Essay Citation Mla Examples Of Citing

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Ask the MLAin-text citations

Should a time stamp be given in an in-text citation for a video regardless of whether the video is viewed online or on a DVD?

Yes.

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

How do I cite an interview when the interviewee has been attributed in my prose?

In an interview, the person being interviewed is generally considered the author; thus the works-cited-list entry for the interview will be listed under that person’s name. If you use the name of the person being interviewed in your prose, you have provided your reader with the necessary information to find the entry: Orhan Pamuk has . . .

Published 14 February 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

How do I cite a name like Queen Elizabeth I, John of Gaunt, and Catherine of Aragon?

Use the first name. Some categories of personal names lack a last name–for example, some rulers and members of the nobility and many premodern people, whose name includes a place-name and not a surname (e.g., John of Gaunt). When you list such names in your works-cited-list entry, follow the guidelines in section 2.1.2 of the MLA Handbook: omit any titles . . .

Published 2 February 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

Do you have to provide the author’s name in a parenthetical citation for a work of common literature such as The Iliad?

Yes, unless you have already mentioned the author’s name in your prose. Just because a work is famous doesn’t mean you can omit the name of its author.

Published 30 January 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsusing sources

What should I include in parentheses if the author’s name is provided in a signal phrase and the source has no page numbers?

As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation” (56). The following example illustrates this principle:  “As we read we . . . construct the terrain of a book” (Hollmichel), something that is more difficult when the text . . .

Published 29 January 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

How do I cite an author’s name known only by initials?

If a source is written by an author who is known only by initials, you have several options. Treat the Initials as a Unit One option is to treat the initials as a unit. You would use the initials in your prose or in your in-text citation and list the entry under the first initial in your . . .

Published 19 January 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

How do I cite a photograph found on a Web site in the text and in my works-cited list?

Cite a photograph found on a Web site the same way you would cite any work of art found online. See our post on citing images viewed in person or online. As always, key your in-text citation to the first element of the works-cited-list entry.

Published 28 December 2017

Ask the MLAin-text citationsusing sourcesworks-cited list

How do I cite a meme?

Here we refer to meme in its sense as “an amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online especially through social media” (“Meme”). Citing Particular Examples of Memes You would cite a meme in MLA style just as you would any other work: . . .

Published 13 December 2017

Ask the MLAin-text citations

How do I cite quotations that are on nonconsecutive pages?

Nonconsecutive page numbers are presented in the same order as the quotations to which they refer: As Ann Smith notes, some scholars contend that “the sky is green,” but others claim that “the sky is red” (80, 120). As Ann Smith notes, some scholars contend that  “the sky is red,” but others claim that “the sky . . .

Published 17 January 2018

Ask the MLAin-text citationsworks-cited list

Can I cross-reference episodes from a television series?

Television series are divided into episodes and often air for many seasons. During the run of a series, performers, directors, and even the entity making the show publicly available (the “publisher”) can change, and thus publication information typically varies by episode. Thus, since the goal of cross-referencing entries in the works-cited list is economy and . . .

Published 16 January 2018

Any time you refer to, comment on, paraphrase, or quote another writer’s information, you must document this in your essay through the use of a citation. The purpose of an MLA in-text citation, sometimes called a parenthetical reference, is to help readers easily find the sources in the Works Cited page that correspond to your referenced passage. You will want to make this process as easy as possible for the reader, so the citations are always placed at the end of the sentence and should always correspond with the first word of the matching Works Cited page entry. Let’s suppose that this is a sentence from your essay:

The author explains, “Record deals were usually negotiated by elite businessmen” (Hennessey 127).

Your reader should be able to turn to the Works Cited page and easily find the bibliographic information for this source. It might be listed like this:

Hennessey, William. The Making of Records in Memphis. Atlanta: Capital Book Press, 2001.

Notice that the author’s name in the citation corresponds to the first word of the Works Cited entry. This makes it really easy for the reader to find and match up information, which is the purpose of in-text citations.

Two primary elements of a quoted passage should be given to the reader:  1) the author’s last name and 2) the page number where the referenced passage is found. The page number is always included in the citation at the end of the sentence, but the author’s last name can be placed either in the citation or in the sentence. Here are a few items to remember concerning in-text citations:

  • No “page” or “pg.” or “p.#” or any other variant is used to indicate the page number.
  • End punctuation goes at the end of the citation, not at the end of the passage.
  • Author’s name can either be placed in the citation or in the sentence.
  • No comma or other punctuation mark is needed to separate the author’s name and the page number.

Here are a few of the most common in-text citations that you might need to write in your essay:

One author:

Example 1: Louis Armstrong easily reached difficult notes, the F’s and G’s that hindered so many other trumpeters (Bergreen 258).

Example 1a: Bergreen explained, “Louis Armstrong easily reached difficult notes, the F’s and G’s that hindered so many other trumpeters” (258).

  • Note: If the work has no page numbers (i.e. website) simply put the author’s last name in parentheses.

Two or three authors of the same work:

Example 3: In Metaphors We Live By, Lakoff and Johnson suggest that metaphors “actually structure our perceptions and understanding” (57).

Example 3a: In Metaphors We Live By, the authors suggest that metaphors “actually structure our perceptions and understanding” (Lakoff and Johnson 57).

  • Note: If the work had three authors the citation would read (Lakoff, Johnson, and Smith 57). Remember that there is no comma between the names and the page number, and all authors must be listed either in the sentence or in the citation.

Four or more authors of the same work:

Example 4: Changes in social regulations are likely to cause new fears among voters (Carber et al. 64).

Example 4a: Carber et al. claim that changes in social regulations are likely to cause new fears among voters (64).

  • Note: Only the first author, followed by the term "et al." is listed either in the sentence or in the citation. Don't forget to place a period after "al" since it is an abbreviation of a Latin word, but no period is used after “et.”

A work with no author (an organization or website):

Example 5: According to The Center for Contemporary Cultural studies, “There is nothing concrete about hierarchy” (10).

Example 5a: “There is nothing concrete about hierarchy” (Center 10).

  • Note: When we don’t have a known author or editor, we can use the book title (in italics), the article title (in quotation marks), or the Web site title (in italics).  If we include this title in our sentence, we should write out the entire title. If we include it in our citation, we can shorten it using the first keyword (just be sure that your reader can still find the corresponding entry in your Works Cited page).

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