Archer, Gleason L., Jr. “The Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon Compared with the Aramaic of Daniel.” In New Perspectives on the Old Testament pp. 160-69. Edited by J. Barton Payne. Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1970.
________. “Daniel.” Expositor’s Bible Commentary pp. 1-157. Vol. 7. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1985.
*Baldwin, Joyce G. Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1978.
Calvin, John. Commentaries on the Book of the Prophet Daniel. Calvin’s Commentaries. Translated by Thomas Myers. Volume 2. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1948.
Campbell, Donald K. Daniel: Decoder of Dreams. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1977.
Culver, Robert D. Daniel and the Latter Days. Rev. ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1977.
________. The Histories and Prophecies of Daniel. Winona Lake: BMH Books, 1980.
Dougherty, R. P. Nabonidus and Belshazzar. Ne Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1929.
Goldingay, John E. Daniel. Word Biblical Commentary. Volume 30. Dallas: Word Books, Publisher, 1989.
Hartman, Louis F. and Di Lella, Alexander. The Book of Daniel. The Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1978.
Luck, G. Coleman. Daniel. Everyman’s Bible Commentary. Chicago: Moody Press, 1958.
Montgomery, James A. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. The International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1964.
The Old Oxford Annotated Apocrypha: The Apocrypha of the Old Testament: Revised Standard Version. Expanded edition containing the Third and Fourth Books of the Maccabees and Psalm 151. Edited by Bruce M. Metzger. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965, 67.
Pentecost, J. Dwight. “Daniel.” In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures by Dallas Seminary Faculty: Old Testament 1323-75. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1985.
*Price, Walter K. In the Final Days. Chicago: Moody Press, 1977.
*Walvoord, John F. Daniel: The Key to Prophetic Revelation. Chicago: Moody Press, 1971.
Wilson, Robert Dick. Studies in the Book of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.
Wiseman, D. J., Mitchell, T. C., Joyce, R. Martin, W. F., Kitchen K. A. Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel. London: Tyndale Press, 1965.
*Wood, Leon. A Commentary on Daniel. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1973.
_______. Daniel: A Study Guide. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.
Yamauchi, Edwin. “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East.” In New Perspectives on the Old Testament pp. 170-200. Edited by J. Barton Payne. Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1970.
Young, Edward J. The Prophecy of Daniel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949.
Periodicals and Unpublished Materials
Gooding, D. W. “The Literary Structure of the Book of Daniel.” Tyndale Bulletin 32 (1981): 43-79.
Heater, Homer, Jr. “Notes on the Book of Daniel.” Unpublished class notes in 375 Seminar in Old Testament Historical Literature. Dallas Theological Seminary, Spring 1990.
Martin, John A. “Outline of Daniel.” Unpublished class notes in 304 Preexilic and Exilic Prophets. Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1983.
McComiskey, Thomas. “The Seventy Weeks of Daniel against the Background of Ancient Near Eastern Literature.” Westminster Theological Journal 47 (1985): 18-45.
Waltke, Bruce K. “The Date of the Book of Daniel.” Bibliotheca Sacra 133 (1976): 319-29.
Walton, John. “Daniel’s Four Kingdoms.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29 (1986): 25-36.
Walton, John. “The Decree of Darius the Mede in Daniel 6.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 31 (1988): 279-86.
Woodard, Branson L., Jr. “Literary Strategies and Authorship in the Book of Daniel.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37 (1994): 39-53.
Yamauchi, Edwin J. “Hermeneutical Issues in the Book of Daniel.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 23 (1980): 13-21.
Daniel was devoted to God
Daniel was a Jewish young man, probably of royal descent. As a late teen he was among those deported from Jerusalem by the conquering Babylonians in about 605 BC. After three years of formal education in the language and literature of Babylon, he became an official in the royal household.
Daniel was intelligent, reliable, and had the gift of interpreting significant dreams. But more than anything else it was Daniel’s character that distinguished him from many outstanding government officials in the empire. He had determined early on to always do what was right, and, no matter what the awful price, he kept that commitment throughout his long and productive life.
During his education in Babylon Daniel and the other trainees were served the rich meats and intoxicants of royalty. Determined to follow the dietary rules in God’s Law, Daniel asked if he and his friends could eat a very simple diet. Daniel had to know the danger of insulting his foreign hosts. If his request was interpreted as a conceited rejection of the king’s best, he could be imprisoned or punished severely. But he asked politely and firmly, and the king’s steward finally agreed to let the Hebrews adopt the diet.
Daniel interprets King Nebuchadnezzar’s dream
During his long 70-year career in Babylon, Daniel occupied a high position in government for many years. One reason he was promoted was his ability to interpret dreams and languages. But both times he was called upon to interpret, the messages he was given to deliver to the respective kings were dreadful. With one word these monarchs could have had Daniel’s head removed from his shoulders, yet Daniel did not retreat in fear or even soften God’s message to these pagans.
In time other Babylonian officials became insanely jealous of Daniel’s success, so they talked King Darius into signing a decree that all citizens should pray only to the king for thirty days. By now Daniel was in his 80s. Other leaders knew Daniel’s decades-long habit of kneeling before his window and praying toward Jerusalem three times each day. Though Daniel realized the decree had been signed, he continued to pray to Yahweh in full view of all. Sure, he could have begun praying in secret, but he didn’t. Undoubtedly these men would have hounded Daniel, attempting anything to destroy him, and Daniel wasn’t about to allow these officials to reduce him to a cowering fugitive.
Daniel in the lion’s den
The king could not rescind a law he had instituted, so he was forced to place this brilliant, devout man in a lions’ pit. These beasts were purposely made ravenous for such occasions, but they didn’t touch Daniel throughout a long night. The king hadn’t eaten or slept and had refused all entertainment. At dawn he rushed to the den and called out, “Daniel, servant of the living God…has he saved you from the lions?” A calm voice echoed from the pit. “My God sent his angel and he shut the mouth of the lions, because I was found innocent in his sight.” It is interesting to note that Daniel’s behavior had proven to the king that his was the living God even before he knew whether Daniel had been spared.
In cases such as his dietary stand, his interpretations, and his prayer life, Daniel did the right thing, even at terrific risk. In Babylonian society Daniel could easily have blended in such a way that his religious faith would have faded into nothingness. Instead he chose to stand against the tide and let all around him know of his staunch faith in the one true and living God.
What can we learn from Daniel?
Daniel believed in obeying God and he didn’t care who knew it. One gets the impression that he didn’t even agonize painfully before deciding to stand for God. His love and commitment to God were indomitable and irreversible. We, too, can gain a reputation for doing right, even if it costs us dearly.
Bible Verses about Daniel
Daniel chaps. 1-12; Ezekiel 14:14, 28:3; Matt. 24:15
What questions does this help to answer?
- Who was Daniel in the Bible?
- How was Daniel faithful to God?
- Who appeared with Daniel in the fiery furnace?
- How should Christians live in but not be of the world?
- Was Jesus in the fiery furnace with Daniel?