Journal of World History 10.1 (1999) 237-240
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Imperialism and Colonialism: Essays on the History of European Expansion. By H. L. Wesseling. Contributions in Comparative Colonial Studies 32. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1997. Pp. x + 212. $59.95 (cloth).
Colonial Encounters in the Age of High Imperialism. By scott b. cook. Harper Collins World History Series. New York: Harper Collins, 1996. Pp. xvi + 176. $15.50 (paper).
These two books are valuable contributions to the literature on imperialism and colonialism, but in very different ways.
H. L. Wesseling's Imperialism and Colonialism brings together a dozen essays he has published over the past twenty-two years. These essays have two strengths. The first is to emphasize the continuity of the relations between Europe and the tropics, from precolonial encounters to postcolonial political, cultural, and demographic interactions. Thus, in chapter 3 ("Knowledge Is Power: Some Remarks on [End Page 237] Colonial Science") the author identifies what was once known as colonial science or oriental studies as the precursor of postindependence development schemes. Likewise, in chapter 10 ("Post-imperial Holland") he traces the unexpected aftereffects of colonialism on a once great colonial power.
The second and most important contribution of this book is that it brings the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies into the history of imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This may seem surprising, since everyone knows that the Netherlands had an empire and that Indonesia was among the largest, richest, and most populated colonies. Yet it is seldom mentioned in histories of the "new" imperialism, as though the Dutch empire were strictly a seventeenth-century event.
In fact, the Dutch empire had a powerful impact on events outside the Indonesian archipelago. In the first place, it was, as Wesseling shows in chapter 4 ("The Netherlands as a Colonial Model"), an inspiration and a cause for envy throughout Europe. Imperialist adventurers like Leopold II of Belgium viewed the Dutch East Indies as a cornucopia of profits for the metropole, while colonial propagandists offered it as an example of enlightened rule.
Causality worked both ways, however. Dutch expansion into the outer islands (Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea) was itself a defensive reaction to the frenetic imperialism of France, Britain, and Germany in the 1880s (see chapter 6, "The Giant That Was a Dwarf: The Strange Case of Dutch Imperialism"), as was the Netherlands' abandonment of its African enclaves (chapter 8, "The Netherlands and the Partition of Africa").
The book will not appeal to all readers of imperialist history. Consisting as it does of a series of articles, it is somewhat disconnected and, in places, repetitious, though not annoyingly so. More tellingly, it is in some ways old-fashioned history, for it sees the colonial experience from the European point of view, emphasizing the military and diplomatic aspects of imperialism, rather than its economic and social side. This reviewer regretted finding little on the development of export agriculture and on the history of the great trading companies, especially in an empire famous for its commerce and its profits.
In contrast to Wesseling's book of scholarly essays, Scott B. Cook's Colonial Encounters in the Age of High Imperialism is a short text frankly aimed at the undergraduate history market. It attempts to cover in 161 pages the phenomenon of "high" imperialism during a twenty-year period from 1880 to 1900. To do so, it is necessarily selective. The scramble for Africa is there, of course, as are three case studies: King [End Page 238] Leopold's Congo, Hawai'i, and British India. The French, Dutch, and German empires get short shrift. But at least by bringing in Hawai'i and the United States, this book breaks with the old tradition that makes imperialism out to be a purely western European phenomenon. To do justice to the global nature of this phenomenon, future works will somehow have to include not only the Netherlands, but also Russia and Japan.
In these chapters, short as they are, Cook succeeds in...
Essay about Colonialism
670 Words3 Pages
European overseas expansion evolved from sixteenth-century colonialism driven by mercantilism to nineteenth-century nationalistic imperialism. Both had different forces compelling them; thus different countries—although most the same—participated in each phenomenon with unique, but largely similar goals. These two forces that overtook the world are comparable as they both have the same objectives; however, mercantilism compelled colonialism while nationalism drove imperialism.
Beginning in the sixteenth century and lasting until the early seventeenth century, several European countries colonialized by formally exerting the control of their political entity over another political entity in a different geographical location.…show more content…
God, or religion, played a role in colonialism; sometimes with Roman Catholic colonialists eager to spread their beliefs to the non-Christian native peoples, or sometimes with colonialists eager to leave it all behind and start anew without the pressures of religious intolerance. Glory, or colonial supremacy, also played a big role in colonialism. A race to be number one in trade, in goods, and in colonies was always a sprint to the finish. However, the biggest motivation in colonialism was the mercantilistic doctrine that
dominated the mindset of the European colonial powers in the sixteenth century.
Mercantilism held that a nation’s wealth consisted of the amount of precious metals, especially gold, it possessed. It assumed that the volume of world wealth and trade was relatively static; so one country's gain required another's loss. Thus, each individual country protected their domains and enterprises against European rivals, preventing their trading allies and their subject people overseas from trading with their rivals if at all possible. In addition, a colonial possession—whether it was a factory, settlement colony, or plantation—should provide wealth to the country that controlled it and was only an appendage of the mother country. In other words, colonies theoretically existed only for the economic benefit of the colonialist’s country.
The European countries that involved themselves in colonialism mostly